New Summary: David Bollier, When Push Comes To Pull

By SamuelRose, published at 10 May 2007 - 8:12pm, last updated 12 years 28 weeks ago.

When Push comes To Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology


Bollier, David;


Publication: The Aspen Institute

Publicaton Date: 2006




Cultural Evolution;




Political Science;








cultural evolution;

group forming networks;


intellectual property;




open source;

property rights;



social capital;




Collective Action;

Collective Intelligence;












    • We are living in an epochal period of transition bridging two very
      different types of economies and cultures. We are transitioning from a
      "push" economy: that tries to anticipate consumer demand, and then
      creates a standardized product, and "pushes the product into the market
      and culture, using standardized distribution channels and marketing. We
      are transitioning to a "pull" economy: open and flexible production
      platforms that use network technologies to coordinate many different
      entities from disparate regions.. "Pull" economies produce customized
      products and services that serve localized needs (demand-driven),
      usually in a rapid manner.
    • "Pull" networks tend to build the
      capabilities of their networked partners, by providing performance
      feedback and sharing best practices among the network participants.
      "Pull" platforms therefore tend to better employ the enthusiasm of all
      of the participants.
    • The "pull" phenomenon is not
      confined to business/online commerce. The spread of common use of
      internet technologies is finding "pull" techniques being applied in
      entertainment, social life, politics, education, and government.
    • "Pull" models are going to change the way that governments create policy as more companies gravitate toward them.

    One Sentence Summary

    Information and communication technology innovation have begun to transform commercial business and social institutions from a "push" technology approach (hierarchical "center out"), to a "pull" technology approach (networked -based and decentralized). This poses new challenges to social, political, and educational systems that are largely designed to support "push" economies.

    One Paragraph Summary

    Over the past 25+ years, change that has usually originated with technological innovation has led to new products, services, and human behavior patterns. These changes are reflected in business and industry, and the way that people entertain, govern, educate, and socialize among themselves. The change is from a centralized, command and control, bureaucratic, broadcast way of organizing, that tries to anticipate and create demand, to a decentralized and highly networked system that shares information about overall network performance and best practices among it's network, and meets local and specialized needs.

    Full Summary

    This paper is a summary of an Aspen Institute sponsored in-depth roundtable session, written from the perspective of one informed conference observer (Bollier). The participants are leading thinkers in the many complex areas this paper covers (economics, systems theory, human behavior, human futures, information technology evolution, etc) and are listed on page 57. A selection of their key insights shared in the paper are listed below:

    A "push" economy is geared towards mass production, anticipating consumer demand, and routing resources to the right place at the right time, to create standardized and mass produced products. By contrast, a "pull" economy is based on open, flexible production platforms that are used to orchestrate a broad range of resources. Instead of producing standardized products, "pull" model companies are demand-driven, and assemble products in customized ways that serve specialized or local needs, usually using "rapid" or "on the fly" processes.

    Several global corporations are moving towards "pull" methods, and away from "push" models; ie., Toyota, Dell, Cisco, Li & Fung. These companies employ different variations of Value Network models, that share information about overall network performance and best practices for serving specialized needs, among hundreds or even thousands of partner companies that make up the network. This creates an intra-network knowledge commons. Some companies also work closely with Open Source Software projects, thereby expanding their "pull" network, and expanding their knowledge commons into a broader Open Commons via Open Source Software project contributions. Thus, "pull" business models also tend to be Network Value-Increasing, and Commons-based business models as well.

    "Pull" models can also be platforms for creating "increasing returns dynamics." This is due to "pull" models being based around loose and flexible networks that are already configured to scale as growth occurs. So, growth does not incur the huge overhead costs in administration that "push" models must contend with. Pull platform key characteristics include modular and loosely-coupled networks, open channels that better harness the passion and commitment of innovation communities. "Pull" platforms also will tend to influence public policy with regards to education and innovation, as more companies tend to gravitate towards the "pull" models.

    The areas where "push" models tend to succeed in business are in areas where people do not know what they want, and prefer to shop from pre-made selections (Ikea, Home Depot). However, there are even "pull" models to found here, in the form of user-driven innovation, such as mountain biking, extreme skiing, hot rodding, etc. In these pro-amateur niches, customers don't necessarily know what they want, but do want to be a participant in the "pull" network that creates the product.

    How do you tax a product that is made in 23 different countries? "Pull" models are going to change the way that governments create policy as more companies gravitate toward them. This will influence laws about intellectual property, education, taxation and more.

    "Pull" economies are not just centered around finding creative ways to "outsource/offshore jobs" away from one place and to the places where "labor" is "cheaper". Successful "pull" models have encouraged and aided "insourcing", where more jobs are created, for instance in the United States by "foreign sources (a total of 7 million cited by this paper), than are out sourced (a total of 600,000+ cited by this paper). This is because pull models seek out, not just the "cheapest" labor, but the best ways to add value to the production networks. So, they can scale to many participants around the world, regardless of local labor costs, to find the best participants needed for specific specialized productions.

    The social dynamics of "pull" models are highly centered around creating relationships of trust, sharing knowledge, and close cooperation among network participants. In "pull" models, non-market value creation (tacit knowledge, intangible value) is generally steered towards a commons-based model. A commons is used as a "collective governance regime for managing shared resources sustainably and equitably." Many of these commons are made possible by networked information technologies (the internet).

    Bollier suggests that "if online commons are going to be useful to business, companies will need to do more work to develop protocols for identity and reputation management". This is because the use of the commons is based around trust. It also due to the need for ways to measure qualitative value in intangible assets beyond money, like knowledge, individual performance and value multiplication, and network wide performance/value multiplication.

    Roundtable participants also noted that "pull" models will pose challenges to current education regimes that are centered around training people to participate in "push" economies. One of the participants mentions that " Computers, software tools, and Internet resources make possible some radically new styles of learning. By using pull-based systems, students can function much like businesses in the pull environment: They can access resources they don't control and put themselves into flows of activity, rather than just building inventories of static, objectified "knowledge."