Available Summaries

By DisciplineBy KeywordBy Author
Summary Ofsort iconAuthored ByDisciplinesAbstract
The Evolution of Strategies in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
Biology
Computer Science
Economics
Political Science
Information
The genetic algorithm uses computer simulations to evolve different strategies for playing Prisoner's Dilemma games, and by observing the interactions of populations of agents over many runs, it is possible to make useful observations that could generalize to human behavior – such as the tendency of reciprocation to establish itself and spread if cooperating agents are able to encounter one another.
The Evolution of Cooperation
Political Science
Sociology
"The objective of this enterprise is to develop a theory of cooperation that can be used to discover what is necessary for cooperation to emerge."
The Cornucopia of the Commons
Business
Economics
Sociology
Dan Bricklin examines ways to induce a pool of users to contribute to a commons without extra effort, using the architecture of the commons (as in Napster's default to sharing in the way download directories are available) and leveraging user's self-interest.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar
Economics
Eric Raymond compares two styles of software development using his own experience as illustration -- the traditional top-down (Cathedral) approach and the bottom-up (Bazaar) approach -- and points out how Internet-enabled cooperation makes the Bazaar approach highly efficient for the right tasks.
That Sneaky Exponential: Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building
Computer Science
Economics
Reed's Law states that communications networks that connect groups (as opposed to peers) create value that scales exponentially with network size.
Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos in the Universe, Nature, and Daily Life
Biology
Physics
Sociology
Strogatz examines the underlying process of creating patterned behavior in situations where there is no obvious conscious control or even intention.
Swarm Smarts
Biology
Computer Science
Insect studies on emergent intelligence in swarms of unintelligent actors has practical relevance to distributed computing, robotics, and other applications; for example, foraging insects use pheromone trails to select the shortest paths to food, a strategy that has been used to solve the famous "traveling salesman problem" in computer science.
Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change
Memetics
Psychology
Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change, explores and develops the theory of the late Clare Graves - a "bio- psycho- social-" understanding of how human's collectively respond to their living conditions and how these responses prompt the emergence of latent value systems / thinking capacities.
Social Science at 190 MPH on NASCAR's Biggest Speedways
Economics
Sociology
NASCAR race draft line formations and dissolutions can serve as an example for cooperation and competition in other social domains.
Social Dilemmas: The Anatomy of Cooperation
Sociology
Kollock provides a literature review and taxonomy of social dilemma models and social dilemma solutions, as well as current issues and future directions of studying social dilemmas.