Emotions appear to be a key regulator of behavior in cooperative relationships. Emotions affect behavior both directly, by motivating action, and indirectly, as actors anticipate others' emotional responses.
Open source software, a form of social organization that configures intellectual property around the right to distribute, not the right to include, is a political economy and production system process, enabled by the Internet, that makes possible voluntary, distributed innovation and collective creation of complex public goods with neither the bureaucratic structure of the firm as we know it or the financial incentives of the market as we know them.
A flexible and coordinated response by the Toyota Group's supplier network enabled the manufacturer to rapidly restore production after a disastrous fire; the self-organized cooperation was enabled by deliberately designed practices that created dense social networks of trust and reciprocity that extended beyond Toyota's boundaries and into the companies of its network of suppliers.
Care in allocation of property rights in transitional economies (e.g., from state to private control or under rapid technological change) is essential to prevent <em>the tragedy of the anticommons</em>, the underuse of valuable resources.
The three schools of thought regarding international cooperation [regimes] – interest-based theories, power-based theories, and knowledge-based theories – provide numerous insights from which it is possible to draw some general findings about cooperation.
The five major approaches to answering how cooperation emerges and becomes stable in nature (Group Selection, Kinship Theory, Direct Reciprocity, Indirect Reciprocity, and Social Learning) might be improved by not presuming asexual and non-overlapping generations, simultaneous-play for every interaction, dyadic interactions, mostly predetermined and mistake-free behavior, discrete actions (cooperate or defect), and the trivial role of social structure and social learning of individuals.
Information and communication technology innovation have begun to transform commercial business and social institutions from a "push" technology approach (hierarchical "center out"), to a "pull" technology approach (networked -based and decentralized). This poses new challenges to social, political, and educational systems that are largely designed to support "push" economies.
Game theoretic explanations of the evolution of cooperation in humans and other animals relies on assumptions -- rational players should never cooperate, cooperative behavior is explained by direct or diffuse reciprocity, animals can do the mental bookkeeping necessary to reciprocate with multiple partners over time -- that are not always or often borne out by data, necessitating new conceptual tools.
"What we now know about the physics and architecture of RF communications contradicts the 'property' model of spectrum and this paper serves as a call to action to re-architect spectrum using a commons-based model."