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Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptations
Economics
Political Science
Studying long-standing institutions for governing common pool resources at various scales can provide important lessons for governing new kinds of shared resources. In the end, institutionalizing effective processes for ongoing negotiation of the rules is more important than the rules themselves.
Common Resources and Institutional Sustainability
Anthropology
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
While existing studies on institutions for common-pool resource management have generated a relatively large number of universal design principles common to successful institutions, these principles apply to the institutions themselves; future research should include contextual factors of the resource, user group and external environment and focus on specific causal configurations of a more narrow range of interacting variables.
Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm
Law
Economics
Commons based peer production (e.g., free software) has emerged in the pervasively networked digital information economy as a third method of production which for some projects, has productivity gains, in the form of information and allocation gains, over market and firm-based production.
Coalitional Effects on Reciprical Fairness in the Ultimatum Game: A Case from the Ecuadorian Amazon
Anthropology
Political Science
Patton attributes differences between two Ecuadorian ethnic/political groups in their willingness to cooperate in the Ultimatum Game to the groups' "differences in coalitional stability, perceptions of trust, and needs to maintain reputation," and emphasizes properties of the groups' political environment over individual differences.
Beethoven's Anvil: Music in Mind and Culture
Biology
Anthropology
Psychology
Music may be a key driver of human biological and cultural evolution, enabling individual brains to engage in complex internal cognitive synchronization and externally attuning the brains of different individuals into group cooperative activity.
Bandwidth and Echo: Trust, Information, And Gossip in Social Networks
Business
Sociology
Information
Network closure produces echo, gossip that reinforces dispositions rather than increasing information flow or the kind of trust that increases social capital.
Artifacts, Facilities, And Content: Information as a Common-pool Resource
Law
History
Computer Science
Economics
Political Science
Information
This paper examines the notion that the enclosure of the information commons through the privatization of information that used to be in the public domain is part of a broad pattern of legal and political changes that are transforming several of the fundamental elements of modernity: science, scholarship, and law.
An Evolutionary Theory of Commons Management
Anthropology
History
Cultural Evolution
The ability of humans to organize collective action on a scale much larger than would be predicted by theories of egocentric rationality can be perhaps best explained in an evolutionary context by the slow and uncertain process (not necessarily leading to a desired end) of group selection on cultural variation (distinct from group selection based only on genetic kinship), facilitated by humans' special skills at imitation and teaching.
An Evolutionary Approach to Norms
Biology
Computer Science
Economics
Political Science
Exploration of games in which punishment is possible and cheating is not automatically detected reveals that norms can emerge and stabilize only if those who fail to punish violators are also punished.
Altruistic Punishment in Humans
Political Science
Psychology
Altruistic punishment may be the glue that holds societies together - by distributing and internalizing policing of free-riding, solving the second-order social dilemma that is an obstacle to collective action.