Available Summaries

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Summary OfAuthored ByDisciplinessort iconAbstract
The Success of Open Source
Business
Law
Computer Science
Economics
Sociology
Information
Open source software, a form of social organization that configures intellectual property around the right to distribute, not the right to include, is a political economy and production system process, enabled by the Internet, that makes possible voluntary, distributed innovation and collective creation of complex public goods with neither the bureaucratic structure of the firm as we know it or the financial incentives of the market as we know them.
When Push comes To Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology
Business
Law
History
Cultural Evolution
Technology
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
Information and communication technology innovation have begun to transform commercial business and social institutions from a "push" technology approach (hierarchical "center out"), to a "pull" technology approach (networked -based and decentralized). This poses new challenges to social, political, and educational systems that are largely designed to support "push" economies.
Why Spectrum Is Not Property: The Case for an Entirely New Regime of Wireless Communications Policy
Business
Law
Technology
Economics
"What we now know about the physics and architecture of RF communications contradicts the 'property' model of spectrum and this paper serves as a call to action to re-architect spectrum using a commons-based model."
Artifacts, Facilities, And Content: Information as a Common-pool Resource
Law
History
Computer Science
Economics
Political Science
Information
This paper examines the notion that the enclosure of the information commons through the privatization of information that used to be in the public domain is part of a broad pattern of legal and political changes that are transforming several of the fundamental elements of modernity: science, scholarship, and law.
Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm
Law
Economics
Commons based peer production (e.g., free software) has emerged in the pervasively networked digital information economy as a third method of production which for some projects, has productivity gains, in the form of information and allocation gains, over market and firm-based production.
From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Towards Sustainable Commons and User Access
Law
Technology
Information
In this paper, Benkler demonstrates that regulatory policy in the digitally networked environment is being used to replicate the current mass media structure in which individuals are passive consumers and argues that regulatory policy should develop and sustain an information commons for the consumption, production and exchange of information by active users.
Governing The Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action
Law
History
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
Any group that attempts to manage a common resource (e.g., aquifers, judicial systems, pastures) for optimal sustainable production must solve a set of problems in order to create institutions for collective action; there is some evidence that following a small set of design principles in creating these institutions can overcome these problems.
Sharing Nicely: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production
Law
Economics
Benkler defines a class of “shareable goods” whose use and distribution is more efficient under regimes that encourage sharing rather than through traditional markets.
The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain
Law
The “second enclosure movement” attempts to put fences around the intellectual commons of ideas and facts in a manner analogous to the enclosure and transfer of property rights from the public to the private sphere during the first enclosure movement in England that fenced off common areas between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. A new way of thinking about the public domain, the intellectual commons, is needed to combat the negative impact of this trend.
The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets
Law
Economics
Care in allocation of property rights in transitional economies (e.g., from state to private control or under rapid technological change) is essential to prevent <em>the tragedy of the anticommons</em>, the underuse of valuable resources.