Available Summaries

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Summary OfAuthored ByDisciplinessort iconAbstract
Theories of International Regimes
Political Science
The three schools of thought regarding international cooperation [regimes] – interest-based theories, power-based theories, and knowledge-based theories – provide numerous insights from which it is possible to draw some general findings about cooperation.
Measuring Social Norms and Preferences Using Experimental Games: A Guide for Social Scientists
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
In addition to self-interested behavior, various experimental games have been able to quantifiably demonstrate behavior with preferences for altruism, equality and reciprocity, reflections of a human dedication to social norms even at personal cost.
Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptations
Economics
Political Science
Studying long-standing institutions for governing common pool resources at various scales can provide important lessons for governing new kinds of shared resources. In the end, institutionalizing effective processes for ongoing negotiation of the rules is more important than the rules themselves.
Cooperation and International Regimes
Economics
Political Science
Using “international [cooperation] regimes” as an example, Keohane examines how cooperation is possible in the absence of a “hegemon” to enforce compliance.
Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
Cooperation through indirect reciprocity, captured by the phrase "I help you, someone else helps me", requires the evolution of reputations and communication of those reputations among the larger group (as in the human instinct to gossip), cognitive abilities beyond being able to identify relatives (required for kin selection) or the individuals who have cooperated with you in the past (required for direct reciprocity).
Foundations of Human Sociality (Introduction and Overview)
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
Experiments like the Ultimatum Game and the Public Goods Game (one shot games for real money divided among strangers) that have been conducted in different countries all over the world have shown that group behavior frequently does not fit the traditional model of self-interested actors, that it is too richly varied between cultures to support a universal sense of fairness, and that a higher degree of market integration and higher payoffs to cooperation can be linked to greater levels of prosocial behavior.
Inside-Out: Regional Networks and Industrial Adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128
Economics
Sociology
The decentralized organizational form, non-proprietary standards, and tradition of cooperative exchange (sharing information and outsourcing for component parts) of electronics firms in California's Silicon Valley explain why the region was able to keep up with the fast pace of technological progress during the 1980s, while the vertically integrated firms of the Massachusetts Route 128 beltway fell behind.
Institutional Interplay: The Environmental Consequences of Cross-Scale Interactions
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
Cross-scale (vertical) interactions among resource regimes must be planned in such a way that maximizes the benefits of interaction by higher levels of social organization (comprehensive planning with respect to ecosystems management and equity) and minimizes the disadvantages (bias towards economically and politically powerful parties).
Modeling Robust Settlements to Civil War: Indivisible Stakes and Distributional Compromises
Economics
Political Science
From mathematical modeling of the risk factors and uncertainty involved in a party’s continued conflict, withdrawal from conflict or commitment to a peace agreement, the distributional aspects surrounding civil war negotiations are shown to determine the robustness and range of potential settlements; the actual moves of conflicting parties in civil wars are found to reflect the dynamics of game theoretical models.
Predicting the Future
Economics
The authors propose a market-based methodology, that accounts for public information, for predicting future outcomes using a small number of individuals participating in an imperfect information market and they verify the method demonstrating that predictions outperform the market and the best predictor in the group of participants.